Цель: знакомство обучающихся с историей создания Конвенции ООН по правам ребёнка.
Учебная задача: совершенствовать навыки чтения с полным пониманием прочитанного, систематизировать новые лексические единицы по изучаемой теме.
Познавательная задача: познакомить с основными документами, предшествующими созданию Конвенции ООН по правам ребёнка.
Воспитательная задача: воспитывать уважение к закону, к соблюдению каждым человеком своих прав и обязанностей.
Task 1. Read the text
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child reflects the vision of the UN to take rights away from parents, thereby allowing the government to raise your children while indoctrinating them into the new "global consciousness". The convention describes children as a member of a family and the community, placing much of the responsibility for their well-being on the state rather than the parents.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Child is the name given to a series of related children's rights proclamations. The first was drafted by Eglantyne Jebb and adopted by the International Save the Children Union, Geneva, on February 23, 1923 and endorsed by the League of Nations General Assembly on November 26, 1924 as the World Child Welfare Charter.
The original document, in the archives of the city of Geneva, carries the signatures of various international delegates, including Jebb, Janusz Korczak, and Gustave Ador, a former President of the Swiss Confederation.
The International Save the Children Union merged into the International Union of Child Welfare by 1946, and this group pressed the newly formed United Nations to continue to work for war-scarred children and for adoption of the World Child Welfare Charter.
The initial 1923 document consisted of the following stipulations:
The history of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child continued soon after the World War II. The primal aims of foundation of the new organization were to help war victims, especially children.
The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II.
In two years, in 1948 the United Nations General Assembly accepted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It was admited that children are objects of special protection in Declaration regulations and in the ones of the International pacts of 1966 concerning human rights.
There are National Committees in 36 industrialized countries worldwide, each established as an independent local non-governmental organization. The National Committees raise funds from the private sector. Many people in developed countries first hear about UNICEF's work through the activities of National Committees for UNICEF. These non-governmental organizations are primarily responsible for fundraising, selling UNICEF greeting cards and products, creating private and public partnerships, advocating for children’s rights, and providing other invaluable support.
In 1953, UNICEF became a permanent part of the United Nations System Headquartered in New York City. UNICEF provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries. UNICEF relies on contributions from governments and private donors and UNICEF's total income for 2006 was about $2,8 billion. Governments contribute two thirds of the organization's resources, private groups and some 6 million individuals contribute the rest through the National Committees. UNICEF's programs emphasize developing community-level services to promote the health and well-being of children.
UNICEF was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965 and the Prince of Asturias Award of Concord in 2006.
The World Conference for the Well-being of Children in Geneva, Switzerland proclaimed June, 1 to be the International Children's Day in 1925. The holiday is celebrated in June, 1 each year. It is usually marked with speeches on children's rights and well-being, children TV programs, parties, various actions involving or dedicated to children, families going out etc.
On November, 20 1959 the United Nations General Assembly adopted a much expanded version as its own Declaration of the Rights of the Child, with ten principles in place of the original five. This date has been adopted as the Universal Children's Day, which is celebrated on November, 20 annually.
The Convention on the Rights of the Child was drafted over the course of 10 years (1979 - 1989) by representatives of a variety of religions and cultures along with members of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and several non-governmental organizations. Like all human rights treaties, the Convention on the Rights of the Child had first to be approved, or adopted, by the United Nations General Assembly.
On November, 20 1989, the governments represented at the General Assembly agreed to adopt the Convention into international law. It has since been ratified by 191 countries with only the United States and Somalia abstaining. The treaty obligates all those countries who ratify it to abide by not so small list of mandates that effectively take the job of raising your children away from you and hand it over to the government. The Convention on the Rights of the Child came into force on September 2, 1990, after it was ratified by the required number of nations. As of November 2009, 194 countries have ratified it.
The Convention was signed by the USSR on January, 26 1990; ratified on June 13, 1990. It was entered into force for the USSR on September 15, 1990. The original of the present Convention was deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations Organisation (Javier Perez de Cuellar), in August 15, 1990.
UNICEF uses the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child as a framework for all its work. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is a comprehensive human rights treaty that enshrines specific children’s rights in international law. These rights define universal principles and standards for the status and treatment of children worldwide.
Nations that ratify this convention are bound to it by international law. Once a year, the Committee submits a report to the Committee of the United Nations General Assembly.
Governments of countries that have ratified the Convention are required to report to, and appear before, the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child periodically to be examined on their progress with regards to the advancement of the implementation of the Convention and the status of child rights in their country. Their reports and the committee's written views and concerns are available on the committee's website.
Two Optional Protocols were adopted on May 25, 2000. The First Optional Protocol restricts the involvement of children in military conflicts, and the Second Optional Protocol prohibits the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Both protocols have been ratified by more than 120 states.
The Convention requires that states act in the best interests of the child. This approach is different from the common law approach found in many countries that had previously treated children as possessions or chattels, ownership of which was sometimes argued over in family disputes.
Task 2. Translate the new words and expressions
Task 3. Answer the questions
Your homework is to make up a summary of the text.